C++ tutorial provides basic and advanced concepts of C++. Our C++ tutorial is designed for beginners and professionals. C++ is an object-oriented programming language. It is an extension to C programming.Our C++ tutorial includes all topics of C++ such as first example, control statements, objects and classes, inheritance, constructor, destructor, this, static, polymorphism, abstraction, abstract class, interface, namespace, encapsulation, arrays, strings, exception handling, File IO, etc.
This statement can be used to terminate a repeated structure (loops) such as while, do while and for and multi branching statements like switch. When the control encounters the statement break then the execution of while loop is terminated.
A function is a group of statements that together perform a task. Every C++ program has at least one function, which is main(), and all the most trivial programs can define additional functions. ... A function declaration tells the compiler about a function's name, return type, and parameters .
C++ provides a data structure, the array, which stores a fixed-size sequential collection of elements of the same type. An array is used to store a collection of data, but it is often more useful to think of an array as a collection of variables of the same type. ... A specific element in an array is accessed by an index.
C++ pointers are easy and fun to learn. Some C++ tasks are performed more easily with pointers, and other C++ tasks, such as dynamic memory allocation, cannot be performed without them. As you know every variable is a memory location and every memory location has its address defined which can be accessed using ampersand (&) operator which denotes an address in memory.
The main purpose of C++ programming is to add object orientation to the C programming language and classes are the central feature of C++ that supports object-oriented programming and are often called user-defined types.A class is used to specify the form of an object and it combines data representation and methods for manipulating that data into one neat package. The data and functions within a class are called members of the class.
C++ Class Definitions
When you define a class, you define a blueprint for a data type. This doesn't actually define any data, but it does define what the class name means, that is, what an object of the class will consist of and what operations can be performed on such an object. A class definition starts with the keyword class followed by the class name; and the class body, enclosed by a pair of curly braces. A class definition must be followed either by a semicolon or a list of declarations.
C++ Object Definitions
A class provides the blueprints for objects, so basically an object is created from a class. We declare objects of a class with exactly the same sort of declaration that we declare variables of basic types.
One of the most important concepts in object-oriented programming is that of inheritance. Inheritance allows us to define a class in terms of another class, which makes it easier to create and maintain an application. This also provides an opportunity to reuse the code functionality and fast implementation time.When creating a class, instead of writing completely new data members and member functions, the programmer can designate that the new class should inherit the members of an existing class. This existing class is called the base class, and the new class is referred to as the derived class.
The word polymorphism means having many forms. Typically, polymorphism occurs when there is a hierarchy of classes and they are related by inheritance.C++ polymorphism means that a call to a member function will cause a different function to be executed depending on the type of object that invokes the function.
Data abstraction refers to, providing only essential information to the outside world and hiding their background details, i.e., to represent the needed information in program without presenting the details. Data abstraction is a programming (and design) technique that relies on the separation of interface and implementation.
The C-style character string originated within the C language and continues to be supported within C++. This string is actually a one-dimensional array of characters which is terminated by a null character '\0'. Thus a null-terminated string contains the characters that comprise the string followed by a null.The following declaration and initialization create a string consisting of the word "Hello". To hold the null character at the end of the array, the size of the character array containing the string is one more than the number of characters in the word "Hello."